SOME TIME-RELATED RESOURCES
Note: stands for newly added links. Be sure to check them
-What Time is it? Some Answers
The official US time: The site states that: This public service is provided by the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Some interesting sites: The above site gives a list of links concerning time.
Today's Calendar and Clock Page:
you could think of. This page gives you the date and time according to
traditional and non-traditional systems, from Gregorian and Chinese to
Mayan and Aztec. Links are provided to calendar pages which use
around the world, accross cultures, and through time. Very
The Times of Our
This page introduces Socio-chronology, the study of the many
perspectives in which
humans accross cultures experience time.
Times Across the
Current local times accross the world are given.
The Official Source
of Time Used
in the United States: "The Department of the Navy serves as the
official timekeeper, with the Master Clock facility at the Washington
Observatory." &emdash;National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal
Years 1992 and
1993. This page is the home page of the Time Service Department.
The Gregorian Calendar, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. At the top of the Gregorian Calendar page, search on "Calendar" to get lots of information about calendars in general.
of the international standard for date and time notation. Helpful in
transnational, scientific discourse.
The Calendar Zone -- Bringing
Calendrical Chaos!: "Comprehensive categorized calendar catalog
containing countless correlating connections & calzone
Calendar (Wolfram Research):
A brief history of the calendar with linked references, both internal
for depth and
external for further exploration.
Focuses upon the use of calendar systems, with links to conversion
collection of links for further exploration.
Calendar/Calendario Zapoteco: A bilingual exploration of the
-Horology : Theory & Practice
Horology - The Index (
and Time Museums) A worldwide list: This site contains internal
give a complete overview of horology, the study of time and
Take a look at what they looked like. No text.
Newsgroup: Via Usenet, alt.horology.
Much of the
discussion focuses on restoration and the general business of clocks.
list is interactive, as all lists, providing opportunity to express
-History of Clocks
A brief stroll through the history of timekeeping. This page was
designed by the
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to trace the
timekeeping from ancient devices to their own, contemporary
to Ptolemy: History of timekeeping and its devices in ancient
-Evolution of the Scientific Understanding of Time
Stephen Hawking's Universe: A good site for exploring the physical nature of the universe. Hawking says that he will address questions such as: "Where do we come from? How did the universe begin? Why is the universe the way it is? How will it end?"
Specola: English version of the home page for Museo della Specola.
includes internal links to text on the history of atronomical discover,
particular focus on that history in Bologne, Italy. Very useful in
intellectual history of scientific discovery relating to time and time
Newton: Footprints of the Lion: Cambridge University Library exhibit on Sir Isaac Newton.
by the American Institute of Physics, this site contains some
on Einstein, from original papers to a recording of him explaining his
formula stating the equivalence of mass and energy.
Snapshots of Einstein
Distinctions (Wolfram Research): This page gives many definitions related to time and astronomy. Each definition
to a more extended, cross-referenced definition. Good for comparison
The Center for Biological
This consortium, based at the University of Virginia, maintains a
to circadian clocks, including their history. You can find there a
the biomathematics of clocks, as well as a review of the pathbreaking
that came in 1998.
-The Fourth Dimension
Hypercube: In this website we find
a Hypercube cut open and represented in 3-space.
A Collection of
an extensive list of links and Java Applets.
A Course in Time
28-lesson course on how to become a time traveler, including meditation
here: This website offers the Hyper Dimensional Resonator: a device
allow you, or so they claim, to travel into the past or explore the
Time travel in the
This website lists movies that explore the possibilities of time
Time in Scientific American: The September 2002 issue of the magazine is devoted to a discussion of time, and contains many interesting articles on the subject. Viewing many of them requires a fee. But Dartmouth students have access to full text Scientific American articles without paying if they go via the onlne library catalog links.
Einstein's Hot Time (Scientific American, September 2002): Reference to an article by Einstein in which he claims that: "When a man sits with a pretty girl for an hour, it seems like a minute. But let him sit on a hot stove for a minute and it's longer than an hour. That's relativity." Physicists do not agree with his conclusion that "That's relativity." But the article provides food for thought.
Ultraslow light pulse propagation observed in atoms--both cold and hot, the work of Lene Hau, appears in Physics Today v. 52 no. 7 (July 1999) p. 17-18 1999 (journal in print in Kresge and online through the Dartmouth library.
Although the high density and very slow motion of atoms at nanokelvin temperatures can be exploited to drastically modify the optical properties of the atoms, ingenious methods at room temperature and above can have the same effect. In early 1999, Lene Hau of the Rowland Institute for Science and Harvard University and colleagues announced that they had slowed the speed of light pulses through a Bose-Einstein condensate to only 17 meters per second, down by a factor of almost 20 million from light's speed in a vacuum. Marlan Scully and colleagues at Texas A&M University, the National Institute for Standards and Technology in Boulder, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics recently reported similar results using an group of atoms that, at a temperature of 360 K, are a billion times hotter than Hau's sodium atoms. Dmitry Budker and his team at the University of California, Berkeley, have witnessed even slower speeds in rubidium at room temperature.
In commenting on this article, Professor Delo Mook has said: "As I understand this, it is just a super, super refractive index. Light is being slowed down by passage through a medium--no big deal. What is big news here is that the speed is incredibly slow. But there is nothing to undo Einstein's second postualte or Maxwell's equations. Actually the second postulate is just a special case of the first postulate: the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames. Since Maxwell's equations predict a speed for light that is independent of the motion of the source or reciever of the light, Einstein's second postulate follows immediately. And there has never, ever been any evidence that Maxwell's equations are in error. They are the only part of "classical" physics that has survived relativity theory unscathed."
The original research article was first published in Nature-- Hau, Lene Vestergaard; Harris, S. E.; Dutton, Zachary: Nature v. 397 no. 6720 (February 18 1999) p. 594-8 1999 (Nature is in print in Kresge and online back to 1997).