Quantum structure beyond the band profile

For the purposes of establishing QCC for the heating rate, demonstration of band profile agreement is sufficient. In this section I discuss further structure in the matrix , which is irrelevant for heating rate, but is interesting in itself.

The classical band profile is a smooth function of , changing only on classically-significant scales (). To claim this, I must assume that there are no discontinuities in the phase-space energy-shell as a function of ; such pathologies would be a new area of study.

This constrasts the quantum case, where there is much -dependent structure before smearing is performed: Figs. 2.7 and 2.8 show images of for parametric changes (deformations) of the billiard of Fig. 2.6. Features to notice are,

1) The overall `banded' shape--this is what the smeared measures.

2) Generally matrix elements are random and uncorrelated. It is the local mean that follows the banded shape.

3) There is a slight wobble (fluctuation in band profile)
*along* the diagonal direction, best viewed by looking down the diagonal.

4) Some matrix elements (or blocks of elements) are anomalously large
(especially see Fig. 2.8), and these large elements form
periodic structures along the diagonal direction.
When the corresponding eigenfunctions are examined, they are often
found to be *scarred* states [90].

5) Whenever there is such a large element,
the remaining row
and column are very small, giving a vertical and horizontal streaking effect.
This is an example of *anti-scarring* [111].

I now discuss these effects further.
Wilkinson [199] has extended the sum rule for the band profile
to include periodic orbit effects which manifest themselves once the
smoothing width is less than , where is
the period of the shortest periodic orbit.
The contribution from a single orbit of period
is structure in the matrix at a `distance' from the diagonal (in energy units)
of
, and its integer multiples.
This structure is periodic in (*i.e. *along the diagonal direction),
with period given by the action integral of the orbit.
Therefore -dependent
structure up to energy scales exists, on top of the
smooth classical changes.
This oscillating correction to the off-diagonal mean value is analogous
to Berry's periodic orbit correction to the mean level density
[25].
The -oscillatory peaks (effects 3 and 4 above)
can be seen as an example of these oscillations.
The clear period of in the figures corresponds to the shortest
periodic orbit (the `bouncing ball' orbit of length ).

Scarring [90,91,111],
a result of the classical dynamics,
occurs with much more strength in the stadium than in a
generic `hard chaos' system, because of the marginally-stable
bouncing ball orbit family
(such non-generic effects are discussed in Section 3.4).
However, it is always present to some degree even in hard chaos systems.
Its effects (4 and 5 above), that of introducing
matrix elements which are anomalously large compared to a Random Matrix
Theory prediction,
can be viewed in another way.
When an integrable system is perturbed (to give a KAM system),
the corresponding off-diagonal matrix elements are *sparse*
[164].
Scarred states are due to the closest-to-stable classical structures
(in this stadium example the main scars are due to marginally
stable orbits [91]), so one might expect
more sparse rows and columns at these states.
Fig. 2.7 is for a deformation which is zero where the
bouncing ball orbits hit the wall, and it shows little sparsity.
In contrast, Fig. 2.8 deforms this part of the wall, and
has much more sparsity and structure.

Why is there `anti-scarring' (effect 5 above)?
To answer this I use a simple formula for the sum of any row or column
of the squared matrix elements,